Conversie optimalisatie: een systematische aanpak

Conversie optimalisatie is nog steeds hot! Steeds meer organisaties willen digitaal groeien en beginnen aan systematische conversie optimalisatie trajecten. En dat is goed, want zonder systematiek in je optimalisatie traject ga je het niet meer redden in 2015!

Toch zie ik nog steeds veel organisaties die, zo lijkt het althans, zo maar aan het AB testen zijn omdat ze graag de conversie willen verhogen. Wanneer je dan vraagt waarom er bijvoorbeeld een “social proof” test draait op pagina X, dan is meestal het antwoord: ja, want social proof werkt toch altijd zo goed? Uhm… nee dus.

Het systematisch verzamelen van klant inzichten is ook iets wat nog maar weinig organisaties doen. En deze klant inzichten gebruiken om verder te optimaliseren gebeurt nog minder. Optimalisatie op zich is namelijk makkelijk: geef een product gewoon gratis weg en je zult echt een enorme conversie stijging realiseren. Maar dat is niet wat je wilt.

Vier redenen waarom conversie optimalisatie een systematisch proces is (of zou moeten zijn):

  1. Start with why: Waarom wil je gaan optimaliseren? Onderzoek de aanleiding want dat geeft vaak een sterke hint waar je moet gaan beginnen met optimaliseren. Je kunt namelijk niet gewoon blindelings gaan ab-testen en optimaliseren. Je moet eerst de data induiken. Liefst niet alleen de webdata, maar juist ook andere data vormen betrekken (online survey, usability onderzoek, sales gegevens, etc.). Een grondige analyse geeft je een goede indruk waar (welke pagina’s, welke kanalen, etc.) welk probleem of problemen vertonen. Dus, zorg dat je goed weet waarom je start en waar je wilt starten met optimaliseren. Dat is stap 1 om meer systematiek in je conversie optimalisatie proces te krijgen.
  2. Gerichter testen: Systematisch optimaliseren omvat ook meer dan alleen zoveel mogelijk AB testen uitvoeren op zo veel mogelijk pagina’s. Wil je systematisch optimaliseren, dan moet je hypothesen opstellen, beargumenteren waarom je deze test op deze pagina gaat uitvoeren, wat je verwacht te leren van de test, beschrijven wat de impact van de test learnings gaat zijn op je digitale communicatie, etc. Overigens, veel AB testen uitvoeren (wat sommige optimalisatie bureaus in Nederland tegenwoordig adviseren) zal zo nu en dan altijd een grote winnaar opleveren, puur op basis van steekproeftoeval! Let dus op met de hoeveelheid testen!
  3. Klant inzichten verzamelen: door het systematiseren van je optimalisatie trajecten ga je ook op een systematische manier klant inzichten verzamelen. Je leert het gedrag van je klant steeds beter begrijpen en dus herkennen. En dat laatste is belangrijk. Er komen immers steeds meer tools beschikbaar waarmee je specifiek kunt gaan targetten en personaliseren. Maar dan moet je wel het gedrag van je klanten snappen, en herkennen! Anders kun je al die tools niet gaan “voeden” en zul je niet het maximale eruit weten te halen.
  4. Digital Maturity: alleen door een systematische aanpak zul je als organisatie gaan groeien in je digitale volwassenheid. Groeien in digitale volwassenheid betekent niet alleen een toename van je conversie ratio. Het betekent ook steeds beter inzetten van tooling (bijv. targeting en personalisatie tools), zorgen dat je medewerkers steeds meer vanuit online en data gaan denken, en zorgen dat je producten / diensten steeds beter op de online context worden afgestemd.

Power of Persuasion

Power of Persuasion

These are the slides of my Emerce Conversion 2015 talk titled the Power of Persuasion. Of course it is about conversion rate optimisation and persuasion. I tried to convince my audience that to fully use the power of persuasion, we should focus on the interaction between our emotions and our rationality. Or in terms of Kahneman’s framework: the interaction between our system 1 and system 2 decision processes. Please let me know your feedback and suggestions!

Mapping Online Persuasion

Mapping Online Persuasion

Er zijn heel veel persuasion technieken beschikbaar. Maar hoe weet je welke techniek je wanneer moet inzetten? Het doel van Mapping Online Persuasion is een tool te maken die je gaat helpen om de juiste online persuasion techniek toe te passen op het juiste moment in de customer journey.

Onderstaand is een tweede versie van het model (hier staat de eerste versie). Ik heb de afgelopen twee jaar mijn model herhaaldelijk aan experts gepresenteerd, en op basis van feedback weer aangepast.

Basis principe van Mapping Online Persuasion

Mapping Online Persuasion Model

Het basis principe is heel eenvoudig. De effectiviteit van online persuasion technieken wordt bepaald door een match te maken met vier basis factoren:

  1. Gedrag binnen de customer journey
  2. Determinanten van dat gedrag
  3. Persuasion techniek die hoort bij de determinanten
  4. Toepassing van die persuasion techniek

1. Gedrag binnen customer journey

Je begint met een analyse van het gedrag dat je bezoekers moeten uitvoeren om jouw doel te bereiken. Deze gedragingen plot je op de customer journey. Gedrag kan betrekking hebben op: klikken op landingspagina, juiste product selecteren, formulier invullen, bestel funnel compleet invullen, etc. Met andere woorden, elke handeling die een bezoeker moet doen om tot een conversie te komen is een gedrag. En elk van die gedragingen kun je, en moet je gaan beïnvloeden!

2. Determinanten van gedrag

Vervolgens ga je onderzoeken wat de determinanten zijn van het gewenste gedrag in de customer journey. Determinanten zijn voorspellers van gedrag. Bijvoorbeeld, attitude ten opzichte van het product is een determinant. Andere gebruikelijke determinanten zijn: social normen (wat jij denkt dat anderen doen, of wat anderen echt doen, wat een autoriteit doet, etc.), ingeschatte vaardigheden (denk je dat het je lukt om een vakantie op deze site te boeken), kennis (weet je hoe je moet inloggen), etc.

Een voorbeeld waar bij men niet goed naar de determinanten van het gewenste gedrag gekeken hebben was bij een online bank. Doel was om mensen te overtuigen een lening af te sluiten. Het optimalisatie bureau bedacht dat sociaal bewijs een belangrijke determinant was van leengedrag (al zoveel mensen hebben bij ons ook een lening). Helaas, mensen willen bij sociaal onwenselijk gedrag niet gewezen worden op wat anderen doen. Gevolg: de conversie daalde significant!

3. Persuasion techniek behorende bij determinant

Een hele belangrijke factor is dat je de juiste persuasion techniek kiest die ook inderdaad geschikt is om die determinant (en dus het gewenste gedrag) te beïnvloeden. Een attitude beïnvloed je namelijk met andere technieken (geven van argumenten bijvoorbeeld) dan bijvoorbeeld sociale normen (geven van informatie over gedrag van anderen). Vaardigheden (kan ik wel online een hypotheek afsluiten?) beïnvloed je weer heel anders (gebruik modeling) dan kennis (zet chunking). Er is hier geen plaats om een hele lijst van persuasion technieken per determinant weer te geven. Dat komt in een andere tool aan bod (de persuasion matrix).

4. Toepassing van die techniek

Het laatste element dat effectiviteit bepaald is de manier waarop een techniek wordt toegepast. Sociaal bewijs is volgens mij een van de meest gebruikte online persuasion technieken. Maar deze techniek wordt niet altijd op de meest effectieve manier toegepast. Kijk een naar onderstaande afbeelding. Hier wordt sociaal bewijs toegepast zonder dat aan belangrijke randvoorwaarden voldaan wordt.

Social proof voorbeeld als persuasion techniek

Conclusie:

Het idee achter Mapping Online Persuasion is dat er een match moet zijn tussen vier factoren: Gedrag ->Determinant->Techniek->Toepassing. Deze vier factoren samen bepalen het succes van een persuasion techniek. Als je deze aanpak volgt, vergoot je de kans dat een persuasion techniek effectief gaat zijn. En dus de kans dat je conversie gaat stijgen.

Hou deze post in de gaten want ik ga hem de komende tijd verder updaten!

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“Choice paradox”: Is less really more? (+ 5 online persuasion tips!)

Online persuasion using choice paradox

The paradox of choice, choice paradox, or choice paralysis are all names for the same and often cited online persuasion technique. It is also one of the techniques in the Wheel of Persuasion (still in beta, but who knows…  someday it will be released! [update: it has been released]) category “ratio & thoughts”. Simply said, when you offer too much choices to your customers (please choose from 206 available flights!), they will not make a decision at all. Most online marketeers therefore, recommend to their clients to stop giving so many choices to customers. But, is that the best advice you can give your clients? In this post, I will argue that there are 5  online persuasion strategies that you may want to try first to overcome the choice paradox, before advising your clients to reduce the number of choices.

We are more likely to choose when presented with fewer options to choose from  

Most people will be familiar with Barry Schwartz’s book (or most likely his TED Talk) on the paradox of choice. It is intuitively plausible to think that more choice is better. To some extent this is true. Autonomy of choice is good predictor of human well-being and happiness. For example, giving elderly people freedom of choice over how to take care of the plants achieved greater health and lived longer. However, researchers have discovered that providing too much choice leads to choice paralysis. People stop making decisions!

Jars of Jam

The classic study is as follows. Imagine a food store, with a food stall displaying jam jars. Customers were invited to taste a variety of jams. The food stall either displayed 6 jars or 24 jars of jam. Afterwards, they were invited to buy a jar of jam. Two interesting results emerged. First, displaying 24 jams attracted more customers to the food stall, supporting the idea that more choices attracts more customers (though they didn’t sample more jams). Second, displaying 24 jams lead to a significant decrease in sales (3% purchased a jar, compared to 30% with 6 jars on display).

Less is more!

So, the obvious conclusion here is that when displaying your goods in your online shop, you should not give your customers too many choices. But how many is too many? A recent meta-analysis showed that the optimal range of choice falls between 2-5. Thus, you should not present your customers with more than 5 choices. However, in reality the optimal number depends on a number of factors (e.g. time available for decision, product involvement, readiness to buy, etc.). Nevertheless, the common advice is: do not give your customers too many choices.

Less is not always more!

Is less really more?

But is that really the best advice you can give your clients? Nope (says research). The actual number of choices leading to choice paralysis depends on a number of factors. For example, the context the decision maker is in (I need to buy now, or I have plenty time), or the nature of the product (simple versus complex products) all have influence on the maximum number of choices allowed before choice paralysis occurs. Also, it is not always practical to limit the number of product choices. For example, some products you might sell just requires you to make a number of choices (e.g., travel destinations). Need to display (too) many choices? Take these 5 online persuasion tips in mind!

5 online persuasion tips to overcome choice paralysis!

  1. Categories: present your choices in categories. This helps to simplify the decision and it prevents cognitive overload. Categories also prevents choices from appearing “almost identical”, thereby giving customers the feeling that they have something to choose from. So, in the “jars of jam” study, they could have overcome choice paralysis by presenting the jams in a variety of categories. Most travel sites categorize their selection into categories. The (paradoxal?) challenge is to decide (or better, test) how many categories to use.
  2. Complexity: try to simplify the choices. If you have many choices, try making them less complex. Less complexity reduces cognitive effort needed in choosing. This one is a little bit more difficult to achieve. It requires you make your products less difficult and thus more distinctive. So, avoid displaying 10 products which look more or less identical but differ on some small aspects. It will likely lead to choice paralysis.
  3. Adequate time: be sure to give your customers adequate time to consider the different options. Again, more time to choose reduces cognitive load which in turn aids decision making. So, when you display many items on a “limited time offer”, be sure to test the whether too little time decreases conversion. Limited time offers appeals to our sense of urgency. You must act now! But, when time is too limited, I can’t possibly make a decision so I most likely make no decision at all.
  4. Present an easier choice first: have your customers make a prior commitment to your product before selecting the various products. A prior commitment (a simple “yes or no” type question) simplifies the subsequent decisions on the various options. See for example how Dell does this the first time you enter their site. It asks a small question, but it serves as an important first commitment.
  5. High quality options: if the options in the set of choices are all high quality choices, than you decrease the chance that you make a bad choice. All products must have a certain level of quality (or be presented in such a way) that customers feel reassured that no matter what they choose, it will always be a good choice.

Less is more, more or less

In conclusion, less is more seems to be a valid presumption for online persuasion. However, this does not necessarily mean that you should always strive to avoid presenting more than 3-5 choices. But, when you do need to give more choices, be sure to implement the above 5 online persuasion techniques!

If you want to find out how this or other online persuasion techniques can be applied to your website, feel free to contact me.

ps. this paper was partly based on Grant & Schwartz 2011 paper.

“Fear Appeals” An online persuasion booster?

The art of online persuasion sometimes lies in small details. It is not only about selecting appropriate techniques to persuade your customers. It is also about correctly applying these techniques! One such technique is fear-appeals. Fear appeals (or fear-based marketing) can be an effective online marketing strategy. But only when you apply it correctly. In this post you will learn what fear appeals are. And how to apply fear appeals to increase your online conversion.

Note, this post draws on a scientific paper written by my good friend (and outstanding researcher) Gjalt-Jorn Peters.

Fear appeals

A fear appeal is a message designed to elicit fear in an attempt to persuade an individual to pursue a predefined goal (see wikipedia). Advertising based on fear appeals usually paint a picture of what your life will look like if you don’t buy their product. They usually play into existing fears (accidents, hurricanes, flooding, being under-insured, etc.). Or they try to create new fears for you you never even thought off.

The fear appeal strategy is clear: create fear, offer the solution.

The most well-know use of fear appeals is perhaps “quit smoking campaigns”. Everybody knows smoking is bad for your health. Social marketers believe that stressing the negative health consequences motivates people to quit smoking.

Online persuasion using fear appeals

Save driving campaigns are also mostly based on fear appeals. They focus on showing the severe consequences of speeding/not wearing a seatbelt/etc. The more gruesome and vivid the negative consequences are portrayed, the more people will start to drive safely (or so the Australian Office of Road Safety seem to think).

Scientific Research on fear appeals

Research has shown that these fear appeals usually do not work. Why not? Because people direct their attention away from the fear appeal message. Or they start coming up with all sorts of counter-arguments (yes, I smoke but I eat very healthy and there is no family history of heart diseases, my grandpa smoked and lived to become 90, etc.). That being said, research also identified the conditions under which fear appeals can be very effective!

Two elements which make fear appeals successful!

In order to prevent people from not taking the appropriate behavioural action upon scaring them, you should make sure the following two elements are always present in your fear-arousing marketing strategy:

  1. Threat: Use a moderate level of fear (not too extreme) and make people feel susceptible to the threat. For example, insurance companies should scare you to some extent about the risk of car crashes or “in house” fires. That’s good, you need to scare them. However, also be sure to make them feel susceptible to the risk. It can happen to you too! As soon as people start thinking: “naah, this will not happen to me” the campaign becomes ineffective.
  2. Efficacy: tell people what to do. So don’t just tell them to quit smoking or buy that insurance, also tell them how they can do that! Make it easy for people to follow up on your recommendation. Put your call-to-action right next to the fear appeal, so that when you scare them, they immediately hit the “I want to insure” button. Also, be sure to tell them how effective your solution is when they hit the button! “Our insurance covers all you need as a car owner so you don’t have to worry about it anymore!

So, the bottom line is:

Scare them and tell them what to do to avoid the threat!

5 online persuasion tips!

So, how does this translate to an online persuasion setting? First, you need to think carefully if fear appeals are appropriate for your marketing strategy. If so, then always make sure to implement the following tips in your fear appeal message:

1. Threat: be very careful what kind of fear appeals you use. Don’t scare them too little but also not too much! Make sure the threat you use is relevant for your target audience. Make sure they can personally identify with the threat.

2. Efficacy: make sure to boost their efficacy. Provide the solution and convince them this solution works! Put the call-to-action next to the threat so that they can efficiently deal with their feelings of fear. You scared them, so immediately give them your solution!

3. Make it easy: make it very easy for your customers to implement your solution. Do not only provide the call-to-action close to the threat, also make the rest of the process as easy as possible. The easier it is to order, pay for, and use your product the more likely it is they will actually buy it!

4. Cal-to-action: I stressed this already before but: provide a strong call-to-action and implement the call-to-action when you scare them. Once they are scared, they are likely motivated to do something but only if they can do something right away. If not, people start to think and probably conclude that the threat is not applicable to them.

5. Reassure and congratulate: Finally, make them feel good again by saying that they have taken the first step towards a better life. Everything will be OK again. In other words: boost their self-efficacy again!

OK, so now you know how to use fear appeals properly. Tell me in the comment section what you think of the effectiveness of fear appeals. Would you use them? Or did you use them already? What were the results?  Please do share your thoughts on fear appeals with us!

If you want to find out how this or other online persuasion techniques can be applied to your website, feel free to contact me.

Optimizing online conversion? Mimic your customer’s behavior!

Why does a sales rep always mimic my smile or my body posture?

Well, that is because mimicry is a powerful online persuasion technique”

Even presidents mimic other presidents to influence them!

Mimicry refers to the automatic imitation of other people’s behavior (see above: all the presidents are mimicking each others postures). You yawn when I yawn, you smile when I smile, you shake your foot when I shake my foot. Mimicry is a powerful persuasion technique used by the most slew sales rep’s. Sales rep’s know that mimicking customer’s mannerisms (smiling, shaking foot, fondling hair) helps them build rapport with their customer’s and make their customer’s like them. And they know that when customers likes them, they will buy from them! In this post, I’ll explain what mimicry is and I’ll give 5 concrete tips how to use mimicry for online persuasion!

What is mimicry?
Mimicry refers to the “automatic imitation” of other peoples behavior. Hence, it could be viewed as a source of social influence. To understand how mimicry works, imagine taking part in the following experiment. You are dining in a nice restaurant. The waitress is very friendly and the food is nice. When it is time to pay and tip the waitress, you tip her generously. Why not, she was nice and friendly and attentive throughout the meal. Your colleague, who coincidentally dines in the same restaurant and has been served by the same waitress, was also satisfied with the food and service. However, he gives a significantly lower tip. What happened here?

Well, the waitress was actually a research confederate who was instructed to verbally mimic your order. So she repeated your order using the exact same words as you used. And this verbal mimicry unconsciously worked in her favor: you gave her a bigger tip!

Mimicry: customer’s who like you will buy from you!

Evidence for the existence of mimicry comes from the observation of babies automatically imitating other peoples behavior (smiling, looking, turning head). Some animals are also good at imitating other animals behavior (e.g. plant-hoppers mimic being leaves in order not to be eaten). Also, our brain seems to be wired for mimicry. We have special mirror neurons which help us recognise and act upon other peoples behaviors. Finally, there is social psychological evidence for mimicry (like the research example above). For example, research has shown that we automatically mimic the shaking of a foot, or the rubbing of the face of complete strangers.

Why do we mimic?
We mimic because mimicry has clear benefits for us and it helps us reach our goals. For example, when I mimic you smiling at me during a conversation, you’ll like me more. We will also be more likely to bond together, and our conversation will be much more fluent.

Influence on consumer buying?
So, can we also influence consumers using mimicry? Yes, we can! Research has shown that when we observe other people consuming a product, we also tend to consume that product. Imagine watching a video where you see someone consuming either goldfish crackers or animal crackers. If you see that person eating goldfish crackers, you are more likely to eat goldfish crackers. If that person eats animal crackers, you’re more likely to eat animal crackers. Also, when you are mimicked (shaking of head, running your face, crossing of legs, etc.) when discussing a new beverage, you will like that beverage more, your intentions to buy that beverage increases, and you actually consume more of that beverage.

Mimicry: a new powerful online persuasion technique?
In short, we don’t know yet. The research on mimicry and consumer behavior is scarce. To the best of my knowledge, there is no scientific research that demonstrates mimicry effects in an online persuasion setting (although see this example on youths imitating online smoking behavior of their peers). Also, I am not yet aware of any AB-test result using mimicry as online persuasion technique. On the other hand, mimicry is a form of social influence and the conditions under which mimicry should work are thus present online, most notably on social networking sites.

Youtube
For example, youtube might be a platform were mimicry could be used for online persuasion. Make a video where you show that actual consumers buy or consume your product. Also, use Facebook, Pinterest or Instagram (or similar services) to show pictures of actual consumers buy or better yet consume your product. Perhaps even more powerful, see your friends and family use certain products. Another use of mimicry might be in online  customer service centre. When online customer service centre use webcams to communicate with customers, they should try to mimic the customer’s speech and behavior (e.g. repeating words, mimic their smile, mimic head movements, etc. ). Also, recently chatbot passed the Turing test (which means that the chatbot made 30% of it’s users think they were interacting with a human being). How did “he” do that? By mimicking the users speech and behavior! Using mimicry in customer care settings, I would suspect this leads to greater customer satisfaction and more favorable brand attitudes, and perhaps even increase future buying intentions. These and more applications of mimicry should be tested on various metrics relevant to your business.

Five Online Persuasion Tips:

  1. Google AdWords: mimic a user’s search query (e.g.  {keyword:default text} ) in your Adwords display banners, in the content of your landing page, throughout your homepage (when relevant), and in your app. This verbal mimicry should lead to more liking, and thus more CTR, and ultimately more conversion.
  2. Facebook/Instragram: post pictures on your Facebook or Instagram page showing actual consumers buying or consuming your product. Compare this to standard product pictures on metrics such as product/brand attitudes, buying intentions, conversion rates.
  3. Youtube: post videos of actual people shopping for your product. Post a video on your site were you show actual consumers buying or consuming your product. Compare this video with a standard product/brand video, on metrics such as product/brand attitudes, buying intentions, conversion rates.
  4. Online customers care centre: when you use webcams to facilitate customer care interactions. Instruct customer care personal to mimic their customer’s behavior (speech, smile, head movements) and test on metrics such as satisfaction with dealing with complaint, brand attitude, and future buying behavior.
  5. Mimicking actual consumer dialogues using (or predicting) consumer linguistics. Find out (for example on social networking sites) what words people use when they talk about your product or brand. See of they use particular words or expressions. Then, use these words to mimic how your customers talk about your product.

So, what do you think? Is mimicry a useful online persuasion technique? Do you know of any AB-test on mimicry? I would love to hear you thoughts on the effects of mimicry as an online persuasion technique!

If you want to find out how this or other online persuasion techniques can be applied to your website, feel free to contact me.

Mapping for Online Persuasion Model

Mapping for Online Persuasion Model

Designing and implementing an online persuasion strategy can be difficult. One must decide on what strategy to use (what do you want to achieve as a company?), one must choose from a vast number of theoretical persuasion methods (e.g. Social Influence methods, Framing, etc.) and practical applications (building a brand community, using loss aversion to persuade consumers to buy now, using dynamic retargeting to make display adds more relevant, etc. ). It may not always be clear when to employ which method and what techniques. Furthermore, most methods and techniques may only work well under very specific conditions (see for example this post). To facilitate the development of effective online persuasion strategies, we developed the Mapping for Persuasion Framework.  This framework helps you to design and implement your online persuasive strategy to maximizing your online sales with fewer costs and better customer retention.

Mapping for Online Persuasion is a protocol that describes five steps in designing and implementing effective online persuasive communication strategies, based on scientific theories and evidence from behavioral and communication sciences. This approach differs from other approaches because it primary focusses on the behavioral aspect of online persuasion (i.e. it focusses on your customers behavior). Furthermore, it integrates methods and application from various disciplines (e..g psychology, behavioral economics, marketing, communication, design, etc.) and as such uses an holistic approach to designing online persuasion strategies. The Mapping for Online Persuasion Protocol is based on Intervention Mapping  protocol for Health Promotion programme development.

Step 1: Needs Assessment. The first step is to briefly review your current online persuasion goals (increase conversion for product x), and to analyze your marketing & communication strategy (branding, social media, etc.). The aim is to get a thorough understanding of your goals, of you and your company, and of your customers. Next, you must understand the reasons (called determinants) why your customers want to reach your goals (e.g. why do people want to buy your product x?). For example, customers must hold a positive attitude towards your product, have the necessary skills to buy and use it, perceive positive social norms, etc. The results of step 1 will be a set of online persuasion goals for your company and an overview of all the reasons your cutsomer may have to reach those goals. These goals and the associated reasons will form the basis on which your online persuasion strategy will be build.

Step 2: Identify Behavioral Steps. These are the steps your customers have to take in order to achieve your online persuasion goals (from step 1). Remember, your customers’ behavior is central in the Mapping for Online Persuasion Protocol, so your “Performance Objectives” primarily refer to “behavioral steps”. A behavioral step is defined as an action your customer has to do in order to reach a specific goal. For example, one goal of your online persuasion strategy may be to have your customers subscribe to your weekly newsletter. Ask yourself “what do my customers have to do in order to subscribe to my newsletter?”. The answer to this question are your Performance Objectives (e.g. decide to want to the newsletter, locate subscription page, enter an e-mailadres, click on subscribe-button, etc.). The result of the second step is a set of Performance Objectives which will serve as input for selecting the appropriate persuasive methods and applications. Furthermore, these performance objectives also act as your Key Performance Indicators used to assess the succes of your online persuasion strategy (see step 5).

Step 3: Selecting Persuasive Methods and Applications. Based on your Performance Objectives, the relevant persuasive methods and applications will be selected. It is very important to align the various performance objectives with the most relevant persuasive methods. For example, the performance objective “customer completes newsletter subscription form” requires different persuasion methods (e.g. using set completion) and applications (e.g. add green mark next to each input line) than the performance objective “decide to put item in shopping cart” (e.g. loss aversion or price priming). Key here is to make sure you use the appropriate method and application for each specific behavior you want to influence, and check the conditions under which each technique works (or perhaps backfires).

Step 4: Design and Implement Online Persuasion Strategy. Bases on step 1 to 3, the online persuasion strategy will be designed. This means, the website will be altered in such a way that it covers all performance objectives using all the selected persuasive methods and techniques. In practice you will most likely build several versions of your website. These versions differ in that they use different persuasive applications (i.e. photo’s, content, coloring, etc.), and these different versions will be tested in step 5.

Step 5: Test and Adjust. The last step is to test the various online persuasion designs you created in step 4. Only when you measure your results you can be certain your persuasive campaign is effective. Testing involves using analytics data (e.g. Google Analytics) to analyze website traffic or bounce rates,  and A/B or Multivariate test to test conversion rates. Based on test results, the online persuasion strategy will be adjusted when necessary.

In conclusion, the Mapping for Online Persuasion Protocol can be used to build an online persuasion strategy, to design an optimal online sales campaign, and to test and review the online sales campaigns. Using the Mapping for Online Persuasion Protocol makes sure your online marketing and sales efforts are based on the latest scientific insights thereby optimizing your conversions!

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How to design apps that change behavior?

Voor een hackethon die ik mede georganiseerd heb, heb ik een presentatie gegeven over hoe je apps ontwikkeld die gedrag kunnen veranderen (How to design apps that change behavior). De focus ligt dan zowel op het doel van de app zelf (namelijk dat de app leidt tot gedragsverandering), als op het ontwikkelen van een app die ook vaak gebruikt gaat worden.

How to design apps that change behavior?

Het eerste gaat dus over psychologische methoden en technieken om gedrag te veranderen, toegepast binnen een “app setting”. Bijvoorbeeld, stel je wilt een app ontwikkelen die “groen gedrag” zoals recyclen van plastic tassen stimuleert. Het helpt dan om na te denken over hoe je gedrag kunt veranderen. Je kunt dan kijken naar het Behavior Model van B.J. Fogg. Hij zegt namelijk iets over welke factoren aanwezig moeten zijn voordat mensen hun gedrag veranderen (namelijk: motivation, ability, en triggers). Het tweede gaat over hoe je een app moet inrichten zodat mensen de app ook daadwerkelijk gaan gebruiken. Een framework dat hierbij handig is, is het aanmaken van Tiny Habits (wederom van B.J. Fogg). Meer algemeen moet je kijken naar theorieën over gewoontegedrag, habit formation, en implementatie intenties (of action plans). Bijvoorbeeld, stel je ontwikkelt een app die de user elke dag moet gebruiken (stel, het invullen van een dagboek). Dan moet je ervoor zorgen dat het gebruik een gewoontegedrag wordt. Koppel het gebruik bijvoorbeeld aan een gedrag wat je gebruikers elke dag consequent uitvoeren (tanden poetsen, naar de toilet gaan, de wekker zetten) en laat ze een als…dan… statement maken (als ik… dan doe ik…).

Deze methoden en technieken zijn ook goed te gebruiken als  online persuasion middelen. Ik gebruik ze dan ook regelmatig voor mijn opdrachtgevers om hun online klanten te verleiden. Wil je bijvoorbeeld een betere klant retentie, zorg dan dat het doen van aankopen in je webshop een gewoontegedrag wordt. Wil je meer aankopen, zorg dan dat je de juiste triggers op het juiste moment aanbied aan je klant.

Heb je vragen over deze presentatie, of wil je meer weten over gedragsverandering en het aanleren van gewoontegedrag? Neem dan contact met mij op!

Wil je meer weten over het online verleiden van je klanten? Lees dan ook deze blogpost!